Növénytermelés / Volume 68 / Issue 1 (March 2019) / pp. 47-68

KACZUR DÁVID – TÓTH BRIGITTA

Reducing the toxic effects of aluminum with bacterial product in the early growth stage of maize

The toxic effect of aluminum (Al) was examined on maize (Zea mays L.). The population was grown under controlled environmental conditions. Aluminum was applied in the form of AlCl3 0.1; 1; 5; 10 and 20 mg kg-1 concentrations. The applied biological product contained Pseudomonas and Bacillus bacteria.

The chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, and carotenoid content in the second and third leaf, the total root length and length of roots based on root diameter, the dry weight of shoots and roots and the aluminum concentration in the shoot and roots of 28 days old maize were measured. The relative chlorophyll content was measured in the second leaves and the obtained values were between 35.10 and 49.78, respectively. The relative chlorophyll content increased significantly in the second leaves. The concentration of chlorophyll increased as an effect of the treatments – except in the one with 20 ppm AlCl3 – in the second leaves compared to the control. The amount of chlorophyll-b and carotenoids were significantly higher in the 0.1, 1 and 5 ppm AlCl3 and bacterial treatment compared to the control. The 5, 10 and 20 ppm AlCl3-treatments had a toxic effect on the length of the root. The root length was longer at 5, 10 and 20 ppm Al-treatment when bacteria was applied, compared to Al-treatment. As a result of the additional bacterial treatment the root grew compared to the Al-treatment alone. Aluminum accumulated in the root, however transportation to the shoot was retarded. The concentration of Al was higher at 0.1 ppm Al+bacteria and 1 ppm Al+bacteria treatments in the shoot, while at 5 ppm was significantly lower when bacteria was added to the nutrient solution. The Al concentration was lower at 5, 10 and 20 ppm Al-treatment when bacteria product was added to the nutrient solution, compared to the Al-treatment.

Due to our results, the applied bacterium products could be used to reduce the effect of aluminum toxicity on plants.

Keywords: alumínium, kukorica, növényi növekedés, tápanyag-gazdálkodás

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