Növénytermelés / Volume 60 / Issue 1 (March 2011) / pp. 115-132

Birkás M

Biological approach in the tillage-related scientific work of Ernő Kemenesy

Ernő Kemenesy was an outstanding farmer and specialist writer, being most active between 1921-1945. He authored several books that are still topical to this day and he was renowned for his exemplary research, teaching activities until his death in 1985. He was one of the first advocates of rational organic matter management and he worked out the conditions and methods of biological soil tillage. In this study, we recall the frequently used technical phrases domesticated by him – the original state of the soil, power of the soil, soli conservation, humus management, permanent structure and cultivability. In his opinion, the aim of tillage is to approximately restore everything that was lost after leaving the original state of the soil behind. He believed that the tillage should have tried to maintain the productivity of the soil and to promote the balance of organic matter production and decomposition. Kemenesy interpreted biological tillage in the sense of establishing soil maturity, i.e. the establishment of physical conditions that are favourable for both crops and the organisms that are beneficial for the soil. He also linked preconditions to the success of biological tillage, such as the provision of organic nourishment (livestock manure, green manure, perennial legume residues) to microorganisms, liming of acidic soils and the production of several crops that improve soil quality (perennial legumes, crops that have thick root systems). In this study, we wish to avoid the typical patterns of biological tillage that are still used to this day, as well as to raise awareness of the preservation of the biological life, organic matter content, structure and moisture content of the soil.
Keywords: original soil state, organic matter, soil structure, biological soil tillage

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