Növénytermelés / Volume 64 / Issue 1 (March 2015) / pp. 21-38


Examination of fertiliser effects on 11-year-old established all-grassland

The effect of various NPK supply levels and their combination was studied on the yield, mineral element content and element uptake in the 11th year of an eight-component, meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis)-dominant, leguminous-free grass mixture in 2011, the 38th year of a fertilisation experiment. The ploughed layer of the production site contained 3% humus, 3–5% CaCO3 and 20–22% clay. Furthermore, the soil was originally moderately supplied with N and K and relatively weakly supplied with P and Zn. The experiment encompasses 4N × 4P × 4K = 64 treatments × 2 replications = 128 plots. Groundwater level is at 13–15 m and the area is drought-sensitive. In the early phase of the growing season of 2011, the upper 1 m layer of the soil stored approximately 170 mm precipitation and the total amount of rainfall was 70 mm during the growing season. The water stock of the grass was around 240 mm until the reaping at 6th June. The aging grass did not develop a second growth for the second reaping in this drought year. Main results:

– The botanical composition of the grass was determined by the N×P interactions. The following coverage values were determined against the N×P supply: Tall fescue: 3–52%, Agropyron: 0–40%, inhabited smooth brome: 4–31%, cocksfoot: 1–4%. Weeds and papilionaceae became more widespread on the N-deficient soil, while grass species were reduced, representing 26%. The average number and coverage of grass species increased as a result of the abundant N and NPK supply. The cover of smooth brome was doubled due to increasing K doses.

– Hay yield increased from 1.1 t ha-1 to above 5 t ha-1 mainly as a result of N supply. The water use efficiency was parallel to this phenomenon. The grass used 2000 l water for the production of 1 kg hay on the N control plot, while the same value was 800 l in the 100 kg ha-1 year-1 treatment and 511 l in the 300 kg ha-1 year-1.

Keywords: established all-grassland, NPK fertilisation, botanical composition, element uptake

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