Növénytermelés / Volume 66 / Issue 2 (June 2017) / pp. 25-46

IZSÁKI ZOLTÁN

The effect of N and P supply of the soil on the yield of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) on chernozem meadow soil II. Amino acid composition

In order to develop the consultancy system of broad bean fertilisation, the aim of this experiment project was to examine the effect of the N and P supply level of the soil on the amino acid composition of broad bean in a long-term fertilisation experiment at different, properly separated nutrient supply levels. The long-term fertilisation experiment was established in 1989 on deeply calcareous chernozem meadow soil with NPK supply levels of 4-4 each in a total treatment combination and 64 treatments. This study focuses on the results of the experiments carried out between 1998–2002. The following conclusions were made:

1. Of the 17 examined amino acids on the chernozem meadow soil with 2.8–3.2% humus content and proper N supply over the four experimental years, the amount of glutamine acid and arginine increased in the majority of years depending on N supply and expressed in g per 100 g dry matter, while leucine, asparagine acid and serine significantly increased in two years. Positive N effects were observed with reference to lysine, valine and isoleucine in one year. Compared to the raw protein content, the total amount of amino acids expressed in the percentage of dry matter was the highest in 1998 (89%), when the raw protein content of broad bean was the lowest (25–27%), while this value was between 78–86% in other years.

2. The effect of N supply on the raw protein amino acid composition (g per 100 g raw protein) of broad bean was not significant and not consequent with the exclusion of arginine. Also, significant increase was observed only in the case of the proportion of a few amino acids within raw proteins.

3. During the experimental years, the AL-P2O5 content of the ploughed layer of the soil was between 120–158 mg kg-1 without P fertilisation, while it was between 175–339 mg kg-1 in treatments with P fertilisation. Better P supply had smaller influence on the amino acid composition of broad bean, significant increase or decrease was observed only in the case of a few amino acids in a crop year.

4. Broad bean protein is poor in sulphur containing amino acids, the joint quantity of methionine and cystine was only 1.5% within raw proteins averaged over the experimental years and the fertilisation treatments. The highest share of essential amino acids was represented by arginine, leucine and lysine, while that of nonessential amino acids was represented by glutamine acid and asparagine acid. The obtained experimental results showed that the protein content and amino acid composition of broad bean were more significantly influenced by crop year than N and P supply in a single year.

Keywords: обеспеченность N-ом и P-ом, конские бобы, состав аминокислот, продолжительный опыт

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