Növénytermelés / Volume 67 / Issue 3 (September 2018) / pp. 51-72

NAGY JÁNOS

150 years of land use in Hungary (1868–2018)

Land is the greatest treasure of Hungary, amounting to 30% of its national wealth. Land has a great significance in the national economy of the country. Only 11% of the solid crust of the Earth is fertile soil. This proportion is 34% in the EU and 60% in Hungary. It is an enormous advantage of Hungary within the European Union that it has outstanding quality lands. This wealth must be preserved, as soil has a significant role in producing healthy foods, which is an increasingly important aspect.

2.9% of the agricultural area of the European Union is in Hungary. Hungarian agriculture provides 2% of the agricultural output and added value of the EU and its share of the income of production factors is 2.5%.

The Hungarian agriculture has greatly developed since the country’s EU accession, resulting in a more efficient and more competitive sector. The country started to catch up with older EU Member States. As a result, the share of Hungarian agriculture increased also in terms of production and income indexes. In the upcoming years, the role of Hungary in the agriculture of the European Union may increase even further by better utilising our reserves and competences.

On a global scale, Hungary uses high value soils for industrial, housing and road network purposes each year. Industrial facilities pose a grave challenge as they represent an environmental load due to the produced waste and wastewater. Factories, houses, bridges and roads often alter the natural underground waterways and groundwater level. Unprofessional land use, soil use and agrotechnical practices (tillage, fertilisation, crop protection), lead to erosion, soil degradation or soil pollution. A single bad decision may kick off irreversible processes in this irreplaceable natural resource.

Keywords: land use, cultivation types, sowing structure

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Editor-in Chief:

János Nagy

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