Növénytermelés / Volume 67 / Issue 3 (September 2018) / pp. 95-114


Arsenic treatments and their effect on sunflower in the early phase of plant development

Contamination of agricultural soils and groundwaters by arsenic is a global environmental problem.

The objective of our study was to investigate the effect of As treatments on the chlorophyll and carotenoids and the root growth and As uptake of sunflower in the early phase of the plant development. During our work, two different types of experiment were carried out: hydroponic experiment and rhizobox experiment. In the rhizobox experiment, five different concentrations of As were used: 1, 3, 10, 30 and 90 mg kg-1 and there were no arsenic treatment in the case of control plants. The following treatments were used in the nutrient solution experiments: 0, 1 and 3 mg dm-3.

As a result of the performed treatments, the amount of total chlorophyll and carotenoids were reduced, nevertheless, the carotenoid content was significantly reduced just in the case if the plant was treated with 3 mg dm-3 As. According to the obtained results, it is obvious that the As content of sunflower was increased under As stress. The As content was much higher in the case of root than in the shoot. In the case of the root growth and dry mass the As toxicity were more obvious when the plant grown on nutrient solution, due to the fact that the buffer capacity of the soil is able to moderate the harmful effect of the toxic elements. In the case of the nutrient solution experiment the dry mass of shoot and root, and the root length were decreased in the case of the all treatments. The dry mass of the sunflower did not vary significantly in the rhizobox experiment; nevertheless, the root growth was increased in the case of the 3 mg kg-1 As treatment. Based on the data, the other treatments influence the root growth according to the following order: control ~1 mg kg-1 ~10 mg kg-1>30 mg kg-1 ~90 mg kg-1.

Keywords: sunflower, arsenic, root growth, nutrient solution, rhizobox

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