Növénytermelés / Volume 69 / Issue 1 (March 2020) / pp. 53-72
Examining the interactions between various production technological factors in long term maize and winter wheat experiments
The interaction of various crop production factors was examined in long-term experiments (established in 1983) on winter wheat and maize on calcareous chernozem. Our research findings showed that winter wheat provided the highest yield (biculture: 8041 kg ha-1, triculture: 8617 kg ha-1) and yield surplus (biculture: 5550 kg ha-1, triculture: 2994 kg ha-1) in an average crop year. In contrast, the highest yield surplus of maize was obtained in wet crop years (monoculture: 13 014 kg ha-1, biculture: 12 599 kg ha-1, triculture: 12 795 kg ha-1), while the yield surplus resulting from fertilisation was also the highest (+5476 kg ha-1, +2390 kg ha-1, +2574 kg ha-1, respectively). The nutrient response and maximum yield of newly bred winter wheat and maize genotypes surpassed the respective values of older gentotypes (genotype×agrotechnical element). Based on the findings obtained from our long-term experiments, interaction was also shown between various agrotechnical elements. In the case of winter wheat, the interaction of fertilisation×crop protection was shown, while we observed the interaction of fertilisation×crop density in maize. In the case of optimum level NPK fertilisation, intensive crop protection resulted in a yield surplus of 1386–2188 kg ha-1 for winter wheat, while maize produced a yield surplus between 2434–4593 kg ha-1 as a result of increasing crop density from 60 (basic crop density) to 72.5–85 thousand crops per hectare in various crop rotation systems.
Keywords: winter wheat, maize, crop year, genotype, agrotechnics, interactions