Növénytermelés / Volume 62 / Issue 1 (March 2013) / pp. 73-94

Penszka K; Házi J; Tóth A; Wichmann B; Pajor F; Gyuricza Cs; Póti P; Szentes Sz

Seasonal formation of biomass composition and nutrition content in different gray cattle pastures

Species composition, production and nutritional studies were performed by grey cattle between different grassland utilizations (overgrazed pasture: 6 months/year, additional pasture 1 month/year and meadow: used to meadow for 1 month at June and pasture for 2 month at autumn). Different utilization of grazing pressures in different plots (overgrazed pasture, additional pasture, meadow) was applied 4 times during the grazing season (April, May, July and August of 2008). The main question was that how grazing by grey cattle can affect species composition, distribution among species of the natural turf if various types of grazing intensity applied. Festuca arundinacea taxon had dominant role in species richness, biomass and diversity in all three plots. Intensively grazed pasture plot were reported in the largest number of species per month and the best values of diversity as well. Pastures had the largest species number monthly. Compared to the additional pasture values of biomass were less, however the nutritional values (protein-fiber ratio) were favorable. The lowest number of species observed in case of additional pasture. The only 1 month grazing in the year was not sufficient to develop favorable species composition, species diversity, nutritive values and biomass. This was contrary to numerous literary data. Vegetation had a typical abandoned appearance. Additional pasture had the lowest number of species. The 1 month long grazing period was not enough for favorable development of vegetation and biomass. Vegetation had a typical abandoned appearance. For development of these values, 1 month long maturation was necessary. Grass biomass and diversity values ranged between the two other plots while nutritive values of the sampling period progressed negatively. Test results showed that grazing at autumn was beneficial in case of species composition and species diversity of meadow therefore continuation was proposed. Festuca arundinacea taxon had dominant role in species richness, species diversity and biomass in all three areas. Based on our results maintenance of Pannonian grasslands without designed grassland management was impossible. Proper intensity of grazing improves grass management and nature conservation value of grassland as well as contributing to the maintenance of these values while the complete absence of grazing on grassland leading to degradation.
Keywords: grey cattle, pasture, meadow cultivation, Shannon species diversity, forage value

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