Növénytermelés / Volume 71 / Issue 2 (June 2022) / pp. 21-38

DEMETER CINTIA

Analysis of the yield quality of the sweet maize (Zea mays L. convar. saccharata Koern) hybrid Messenger in 2020–2021

Sweet maize is also a priority as a healthy food in Europe. Yellow-grain sweet corn contains significant amounts of β-carotene. In an experiment at the Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences and Environmental Management of the University of Debrecen, the yield quality of a super sweet, medium grain Messenger sweet maize hybrid was investigated as a function of the effect of the crop year. In sweet maize production, the crop year significantly influences plant height, ear length, number of kernels/row, thousand grain weight and biological yields. In 2020, the yield (ear + husk) was 15.159 t/ha, in 2021, the yield was higher by 4.703 t/ha (19.863 t/ha) due to the more favourable temperature. The useful heat surplus in 2020 was 185 °C days. In 2021, energy efficiency was also more favourable, with a yield of 20 kg per 1 °C day, compared to less than 18 kg in 2020. In our laboratory tests, the element content, total carotenoids content and sugar content of sweet maize were analysed. Based on our research results, we found that in 2021, the yield increase was associated with a significant elemental depletion. Per kilogram, K decreased by 2470 mg, P by 750 mg and Mg by 326 mg. At the same time, element yields per hectare did not decrease due to the yield surplus. The length of the growing season of sweet maize is influenced by variations in weather factors, temperature, number of hours of sunshine and rainfall.

Keywords: sweet maize, quality, sugar, lutein

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János Nagy

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