Növénytermelés / Volume 64 / Issue 4 (December 2015) / pp. 5-22

CZIMBALMOS Á

Baking quality of flour ground from winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in different crop years in Karcag

The baking quality (wet gluten content, water binding capacity and Valorigraphic Unit) was examined in 23 winter wheat varieties of different genotype in Karcag in 6 different crop years, under the unfavourable agro-ecological conditions of “Nagykunság”.

The varieties were grouped from different points of view: maturity time (early-, medium-, and medium-late maturity groups), bearded or bald wheat varieties, and the place of breeding (Szeged, Martonvásár, Karcag).

I found that wet gluten contents were considerably lower in the extreme wet vegetation period as well as when high amount of rainfall occurred directly before harvest time. The varieties of the medium-late maturity group reached the best results regarding gluten content. In this respect the bearded varieties exceeded the bald ones. The varieties bred in Karcag had the highest gluten content in 4 out of the investigated 6 years, while in the other 2 years the varieties bred in Martonvásár were the best. The amount of precipitation in the autumn-winter period has a decreasing effect on the wet gluten content, while the late spring-early summer mean temperature has a slight increasing effect on it within the investigated precipitation and temperature ranges.

The precipitation directly before harvest time had no such unfavourable effect on the baking quality as the extremely high amount of the whole vegetation period. The best results in this respect were characteristic to the varieties belonging to the early and medium-late maturity groups. The bearded varieties had better baking quality than the bald ones each year: the more extreme was the year, the higher differences were characteristic. No significant differences were detected among the varieties according to the place of breeding, and these small differences were alternating. Water binding capacity is determined by the amount of rainfall of the late spring-early summer period positively, while the mean temperature of that season negatively. The amount of precipitation in the whole vegetation period or in the autumn-winter and late spring-early summer periods has negative effect on the baking quality, while positive correlation was found with the mean temperature of the early spring and late spring-early summer periods.

Keywords: winter wheat, effect of crop year, baking quality, wet gluten content, Nagykunság (Great Cumania)

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