Növénytermelés / Volume 65 / Issue 2 (June 2016) / pp. 59-76
SIMON LÁSZLÓ – VINCZE GYÖRGY – URI ZSUZSANNA – IRINYINÉ OLÁH KATALIN – VÍGH SZABOLCS – MAKÁDI MARIANNA – ARANYOS TIBOR – ZSOMBIK LÁSZLÓ
Long-term open-field fertilisation experiment with energy willow (Salix sp.) – observations of the first five years
An open-field small plot long-term fertilisation experiment was established during 2011 with willow (Salix triandra x Salix viminalis ’Inger’), grown as an energy crop. The 0.4 hectares experimental plot is located in Nyíregyháza city at the land of Research Institute of Nyíregyháza, University of Debrecen Centre of Agricultural Sciences. The brown forest soil was treated twice (during June 2011 and May 2013) with municipal biocompost (MBC), municipal sewage sludge compost (MSSC), willow ash (WA), and rhyolite tuff (RT). Ammonium nitrate (AN) or urea (U) artificial fertilisers were also applied to the soil during May or June of 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014 as top-dressing. These fertilisers and amendments were also applied to the soil in combinations; MBC+AN or U as a top-dressings, RT+AN or U, WA+AN or U, and MSSC+WA. All ten treatments were repeated 4 times. It was concluded that the nitrate-nitrogen pool of the soil was considerably reduced during the first 2 years of the experiment, which was not balanced by the multiple application of AN fertiliser, or MBC and MSSC amendments rich in nitrogen compounds. Nitrate leaching to the groundwater was primarily observed in MSSC or AN-treated cultures. Except WA or MSSC+WA treatments, soil application of other amendments or AN enhanced the specific nitrogen or potassium concentrations in willow leaves. It was obvious that multiple AN applications significantly reduces the Zn concentration in willow leaves. From soil amendments or top-dressings were not transferred any significant quantities of toxic elements (As, Ba, Cd, Pb) to the leaves of willow. During 2013 the most intensive soil respiration was measured in RT-treated culture, while the lowest rate was observed in case of WA application. The highest rate of photosynthesis (A) was observed during this year in MBC+AN treated culture.
Keywords: “energy willow” (Salix sp.), fertilisation, open-field long-term experiment, brown forest soil