1. 160 kg ha-1 split N fertilisation resulted in the highest yield of winter barley in a year with average precipitation on chernozem meadow soil with 2.8–3.2% humus content and good N supply ability. In a year with deficient water supply, when N conversation ratio is more limited, 80 kg ha-1 split N fertilisation was shown to be the most successful. Following a dry year, when a significant amount (80–100 kg ha-1) mineral N remained in the soil following the previous crop and water supply was more favourable than average, the 80 kg ha-1 split N fertilisation provided nearly 6 t ha-1 yield. Crop year without N fertilisation resulted in 1.7 t ha-1 yield difference, while the same value was 2 t ha-1 on the level of maximum yields.
2. Averaged over the three examined years, no significant difference could be observed in the yield of winter barley in the 118–282 mg kg-1 AL-P2O5 supply range and 95% of the maximum yield could be achieved without P fertilisation. Moderate P effect can be expected on chernozem meadow soil in the 160–220 mg kg-1 AL-P2O5 supply range in certain years.
3. No K effects could be shown in the 199–377 mg kg-1 AL-K2O supply range of the soil and 99% of the maximum yield could be achieved without K fertilisation, averaged over the three examined years. On chernozem meadow soil, 200–235 mg kg-1 AL-K2O supply can be considered favourable for winter barley.
4. The K×N interaction shows that significant grain yield reduction can be observed on the 80, 160, 240 kg ha-1 N fertilisation levels above the 300 mg kg-1 AL-K2O supply level of the soil in the majority of cases. The yield increasing effect of N fertilisation was more pronounced without K fertilisation.
5. No notable change was observed in the raw protein content of the grain yield of winter barley in the 118–282 mg kg-1 AL-P2O5 supply range and the 199–377 mg kg-1 AL-K2O supply range of the soil. Averaged over the three examined years, the raw protein content significantly increased until 160 kg ha-1 N.
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