Növénytermelés / Volume 62 / Issue 3 (September 2013) / pp. 23-42
Izsáki Z; Némethné Kádi G
Fertilisation of Jerusalem artichoke ( Helianthus tuberosus L.) II. Nutrient uptake, nutrient need
Two Jerusalem artichoke varieties (Tápió early and Tápió normal) were tested for biomass accumulation and nutrient uptake dynamics, as well as their specific nutrient uptake in a fertilisation field experiment.
The fertilisation experiment was established in 2002, on deeply calcareous chernozem meadow soil with two cultivars and 13 fertilisation treatments, split-plot design and four replications. Main parameters of the experiment soil: pH(KCl) 5.8, no CaCO3 content, physical soil type: clayey adobe, humus content: 2.65%, AL-P2O5: 121 mg kg-1, AL-K2O: 278 mg kg-1. Sampling was performed 5 times during the growing season. The fresh and dry matter content of the leafy stem and the tuber were examined, as well as the N, P, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu content of the vegetable parts.
The dry matter accumulation dynamics of the leafy stem and tuber yield of the short growing season Tápió early and the long growing season Tápió normal Jerusalem artichoke cultivars greatly differ from each other. The ratio of the maximum dry matter weight of the tuber yield and the leafy stem yield is 1:1 and 1:4.5 in the case of Tápió early and Tápió normal, respectively.
The highest nutrient concentration was measured in the leafy stem on the 85th day of the growing season, before the intensive dry matter accumulation of the leafy stem when the tuber formation still has not started. The greatest nutrient content decrease of the leafy stem was observed in the tuber formation period.
The highest point of nutrient uptake was observed in the second half of August in the case of both cultivars. The following amounts were incorporated into the dry matter of the Tápió early cultivar (18,49 t ha-1): 230 kg N, 50 kg P, 398 kg K, 146 kg Ca and 50 kg Mg. Tápió normal (23,34 t ha-1): 364 kg N, 68 kg P, 673 kg K, 189 kg Ca and 100 kg Mg.
There is a large difference between the two cultivars in terms of specific nutrient uptake, as there is a significant difference between the maximum dry matter content of the tuber yield and the leafy stem yield. The specific nutrient uptake related to 10 t tuber yield and its associated leafy stem yield in the case of Tápió early: 48 kg N, 10 kg P (23 kg P2O5), 83 kg K (100 kg K2O), 30 kg Ca (42 kg CaO) and 10 kg Mg (17 kg MgO). The specific nutrient uptake of Tápió normal: 162 kg N, 30 kg P (69 kg P2O5), 300 kg K (361 kg K2O), 84 kg Ca (118 kg CaO) and 45 kg Mg (75 kg MgO).
Keywords: Jerusalem artichoke, dry matter accumulation, nutrient concentration, nutrient uptake